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中学英语教学策略――提高阅读能力方法谈

发布时间:2017-05-08 13:00来源:网络

  提高阅读能力的最好办法就是大量阅读,阅读中必然会遇到一些生词,如何处理这些生词是决定你的阅读是否成功的关键。有的同学一碰到生词就查字典,结果不仅减慢了速度,而且也打断了连贯阅读,妨碍了整体理解。其实我们阅读中碰到的生词有相当一部分是可以通过上下文或通篇理解来确定其词意的。下面几种方法同学们可以试一试:

  1. 根据定义解释说明猜测词意
  E-mail English is a new kind of English that many people use to save time. A lot of e-mail English words come from a computer programme called ICQ, which means I seek you.
  从此段中我们不难理解“什么是e-mail English”,也会对ICQ的含义准确把握。
  再如:A person who is good at making and repairing wooden objects is called a carpenter.
  擅长制作和修理木制品的人就是木匠。
  在be或be called的句式中,主语或表语往往是用来下定义的主体。定语从句或同位语从句往往对先行者的词意起修饰或解释说明作用。
  Your mobile phone is like a status symbol-it says if you are cool or not.
  There are two types of fat, external fat (fat under skin) and internal fat (fat inside the body wall).
  括号“( )”破折号“ ---”在句中常引出注释性词语,有助于我们推断词意。
  如:在上句中external fat(皮下脂肪)internal fat(体内脂肪)
  有时,利用一些信号词如namely, that’s (i.e.), that is to say, such as, for example, 可以猜测生词意思。
  Other punctuation marks such as commas, help add other parts of the face and indicate different expressions.
  以commas为例子可以推出punctuation marks为“ 标点符号”之意。
  2.根据上下文情景猜测词意
  有时候语境中既没有明确定义也没有明确的解释, 而是作者创设一种情景, 暗示某词所指的性能和特征。
  After lunch, he came down to the beach again. The tide had gone out now, so the sea was much lower.
  根据句中的“the beach”和 “the sea was lower”可想到tide的意思可能为“潮”.
  Homophones often use letters and numbers that sound like words or parts of words.
  用与单词或单词的部分有相同的字母和数字组成的词为homophones。 从句中可知homophones 为“ 同音异义词 ” 。
  3.根据同类词或同义词猜测词意
  My mobile phone is old-fashioned, behind the times, and outdated.
  从old-fashioned, outdated不难想象出behind the times是“过时”的意思。
  The game American call soccer is known around the world as football. 一目了然football 和 soccer同义。
  4.根据对比关系猜测词意
  在but或though 这些表示转折的连词出现的句中,其前后的词有着明显的对比关系,通过这种关系可以猜测出生词的词意。
  If you agree, write “yes”. If you dissent, write “no”.显而易见dissent为“不同意,不赞同”。
  There are two types of reading. One is reading aloud, the other is silent reading.
  通过reading aloud 可知, silent reading 为“默读”。
  5. 根据因果关系猜测词意
  The old scientist had had a long day and was feeling drowsy.
  工作了一整天,老科学家也许是累了(drowsy)。
  His face was flushed because he ran all the way from school gate.
  他从校门口一直跑过来,所以满脸通红(flushed)。
  6.根据生活常识或背景知识猜测词意
  If you keep bread too long, it becomes stale.
  从现实生活中我们有体会,面包保存时间长就会发霉。所以句中stale为“不新鲜的”“变味的”“ 发霉的”。
  Since I have been ill, my appetite(胃口) has diminished.
  一般人病后,食欲就会大减(口头上即胃口不开)。Diminish为“减小,减少”之意。当然,这些方法只有通过反复训练才能内化为你的阅读能力。

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